Pollen dating palynology
Binomial nomenclature had been introduced much earlier by some of the herbalists, but it was not generally accepted; most botanists continued to use cumbersome formal descriptions, consisting of many words, to name a plant.
Linnaeus for the first time put the contemporary knowledge of plants into an orderly , with full acknowledgment to past authors, and produced a nomenclatural methodology so useful that it has not been greatly improved upon.
were published with the purpose of describing plants useful in medicine.
Written by physicians and medically oriented botanists, the earliest herbals were based largely on the work of Dioscorides and to a lesser extent on Theophrastus, but gradually they became the product of original observation.
The oxygen of the atmosphere, so absolutely essential to many forms of life, represents the accumulation of over 3,500,000,000 years of photosynthesis by green plants.
A second unique and important capacity of green plants is the formation and release of oxygen as a by-product of .They have developed surprisingly sophisticated systems of nomenclature and of agriculture but also in a greater stability of human populations that had previously been nomadic.From the settling down of agricultural peoples in places where they could depend upon adequate food supplies came the first villages and the earliest civilizations.More recently, phytochemistry, computerized statistics, and fine-structure morphology have been added to the activities of systematic botany.The 20th century has seen an enormous increase in the rate of growth of research in botany and the results derived therefrom.
The increasing objectivity and originality of herbals through the decades is clearly reflected in the improved quality of the woodcuts prepared to illustrate these books.